CSCOPE Science Grade 5 Unit 2 Lesson 1: Physical Science

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Silhouette of Teacher in a CSCOPE school pleading for help.Parents,

I  reviewed the following 5th grade CSCOPE Science lesson about Physical Properties. While I have made comments on the lesson in red, my comment to you is HELP!!!

CSCOPE lessons will be in our Texas Schools this year (2013-2014). Some teachers will promote the CSCOPE lessons. I want you to evaluate some of the CSCOPE lessons for yourself. Then, determine if they contain material that you want taught to your children. Science is factual. Or let me say that there are phenomenon that one can depend on–jump off of a tall building and you will experience gravity.

I find the CSCOPE science lessons upsetting because I know some children will be learning the incorrect information presented in the lessons. It will be up to parents to make sure that their children are being taught correct information.

 I strongly suggest that teachers using any part of this lessons check and double check its safety and correctness. There are so many errors. I may not have identified all the errors. Also, I suggest that teachers divide the material into many separate lessons.

CSCOPE




Science Grade 05 Unit 02 Exemplar Lesson 01: Physical Properties of Matter

 

This lesson is one approach to teaching the State Standards associated with this unit. Districts are encouraged to customize this lesson by supplementing with district-approved resources, materials, and activities to best meet the needs of learners. The duration for this lesson is only a recommendation, and districts may modify the time frame to meet students’ needs. To better understand how your district may be implementing CSCOPE lessons, please contact your child’s teacher. (For your convenience, please find linked the TEA Commissioner’s List of State Board of Education Approved Instructional Resources and Midcycle State Adopted Instructional Materials.)

Lesson Synopsis

This lesson bundles student expectations that address classifying matter based on physical properties. Many process skills
will be embedded to support scientific processes and measurement. This is an example of a lesson that contains too many
unrelated concepts. TOO long…. There is no connection between the concepts, thus the gaps are many.

TEKS

The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) listed below are the standards adopted by the State Board of Education, which are required by Texas law. Any standard that has a strike-through (e.g. sample phrase) indicates that portion of the standard is taught in a previous or subsequent unit. The TEKS are available on the Texas Education Agency website at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=6148.
5.5Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:
5.5AClassify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy.
Readiness Standard
5.5BIdentify the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale.
Supporting Standard

Scientific Process TEKS

5.1Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
5.1ADemonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations.
5.1BMake informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.
5.2Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and outdoor
inves
tigations. The student is expected to:
Note: According to TEA, student hands-on investigation must be done
for an activity to be aligned with this TEKS/
Some CSCOPE activities and performance indicators list this TEKS but do not satisfy the requirement of a hands-on
investigation. Making posters, tri-folds or other paper activities are not considered science investigations
aligned
with this Science Process TEKS.
5.2CCollect information by detailed observations and accurate measuring.
5.2DAnalyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence.
5.2FCommunicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms.
5.4Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:
5.4ACollect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, pan balances, triple beam balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.
5.4BUse safety equipment, including safety goggles and gloves.

GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION

Performance Indicators

Grade 05 Science Unit 02 PI 01

You are taking a cooking class and are assigned the task of analyzing how the properties of the items found in a kitchen determine their use. Choose five items to evaluate. Consider the following properties in your evaluation: magnetism, physical state, relative density, solubility in water, ability to conduct or insulate thermal or electric energy, and the boiling and melting/freezing point of water. Create a display to communicate this information to other students.

Standard(s): 5.2F , 5.5A , 5.5B This is considered a comparative Hands-On Investigation and does satisfy the Science
Process TEKS listed.

ELPS ELPS.c.1E , ELPS.c.5G

Key Understandings

  • Matter has measurable physical properties, and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.
    —     How do physical properties determine how to classify matter?
    —     How do physical properties determine how matter is changed?
    —     How do physical properties determine how matter is used?
  • Changes in water are caused by heating and cooling. This should be stated as: Changes in the physical state of water is caused by heating and cooling.
    —     What causes the changes when heating and cooling cause changes in water?  

The changes in the physical state of water have to do with how the water molecules are linked (bonded) together.

1. At or below the freezing point of water, which is 32 0F (0 o C), the water molecules are linked  in a way that
six water molecules form a closed ring and one ring is linked to another ring, thus a solid crystal is formed.
At this low temperature the water molecules have low energy, but continue to move by vibrating-moving
back and forth.

2. The liquid state of water exists at or between the freezing point and boiling point of water,
which is 212 0F (100 o C). Liquid molecules are more linear, not in closed rings. Liquid water is made of short
chains of water molecules. The molecules in liquid water have more energy and the individual molecules
in each chain vibrate, but the chains of molecules also have linear motion.

3. The gas state of water exists at or above the boiling point of water, 212 0F (100 o C). Gases are individual
molecules of water.

http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson2

Vocabulary of Instruction This list in CSCOPE lessons is for the instructor to use during class but students are not given
the words to learn. TEA disagrees with this and in the K-4 Special professional development materials, science vocabulary
is considered the important bricks for the foundation of science education. While students are expected in the 5th grade
to have some background knowledge from previous science instructions, they are not to be expected to work on their
own or in groups to discover and dig the mud, to shape and bake the mud to form new science facts bricks on their own.
Few Texas Teachers have seen the TEA/ESC developed TEKS PDs even though the 20 ESCs were paid $100 Million dollars
to develop and present these special materials in workshops as well as post them on the Project Share website.
The ESCs were very busy developing CSCOPE instruction matreials, such as this science lesson that was sold to the
schools. The multimillion dollar TEKS workshops were in Math, Science, ELAR and Social Studies were to be presented FREE
to Texas Educators. The 20 ESCs gave priority to the CSCOPE workshops, paid for by school districts.

The $100 million dollars is just a drop in the money buckets of the 20 Texas Education Service Centers (ESDs). 

You can find information about the  Money Income for Region 13-One of the 20 State ESCs, Here

  • matter
  • properties
  • relative density
  • solubility

This CSCOPE list of vocabulary words is very incomplete. I suggest that you prepare your own vocabulary
as you design your lessons. Know that the following CSCOPE lesson has good and bad information.

Other than incorrect facts, CSCOPE lessons present too many concepts per lessons. The following 5E lessons presents all of these
concepts: matter, states of matter, magnetism, conduction of electricity and heat, insulation of electricity and heat, relative density,
solubility. The lesson is 13 days. One concept follows the other as if they were all directly related. An unidentified CSCOPE authors
created this lesson. Actually, all CSCOPE lessons are made up of puzzle pieces with different people–not necessarily workin together adding
different pieces of the puzzle.

Yes, the TEKS lists all the different physical properties in this lesson, but without some closure for each of the concepts, students are
receiving bits and pieces and will have difficulty relating them.

 

Materials

  • aluminum foil (approximately 12”x6”, 1 per class)
  • bag (brown, 1 per class)
  • bags (brown paper, lunch-size, 1 per group)
  • balance (triple beam, 1 per group)
  • battery (D cell, 1 per group)
  • BB’s (per teacher)
  • beaker (1 per station)
  • beaker (Pyrex®, 250 mL, for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • bowl (1 per group)
  • bubble wrap (1 per class)
  • can of diet soda (3 or more different kinds, per class)
  • can of regular soda (3 or more different kinds, per class)
  • cardstock  (1 piece per class)
  • circuit breaker switch (1 per group)
  • clear soda (1 per class)
  • complete circuit (for testing,1 per group)
  • container of hot water (per class)
  • container with water (transparent, such as an aquarium, 1 per class)
  • cup (Styrofoam™, 1 per class)
  • cylinder (graduated, 1 per class)
  • electrical tape or battery holder (per group)
  • food coloring (5 drops, per station or set-up)
  • gloves or hot mitt (for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • glue (white liquid, 1 bottle per group)
  • hand lens (1 per group)
  • hole-punch circles (paper, 30 per student)
  • hot plate (for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • insulated wire (15–25 cm, 3 pieces per group)
  • iron filings (per group)
  • jar (heatproof, with lid, 1 per group)
  • light bulbs (miniature, see Advance Preparation, 1 per group)
  • magnet (1 per group)
  • magnet (bar and horseshoe, for demonstration, 1 of each per teacher)
  • magnets (bar, 2 per group)
  • newspaper (1 sheet per class)
  • objects (found in the classroom, 3–5 per group)
  • objects (magnetic and non-magnetic items, 8–10 per group)
  • objects (variety of metal and nonmetal, see Advance Preparation, 1 set per group)
  • paper (plain, 1 sheet per group)
  • paper clip (1 per teacher)
  • paper clips (2 per group)
  • Petri dishes (3 per teacher)
  • projector (overhead, 1 per teacher)
  • ruler (centimeter, 1 per teacher)
  • safety goggles (for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • salt (15 g, per station or set-up)
  • sand (15 g, per station or set-up)
  • scissors (1 pair per group)
  • sewing thread or kite string (70 cm, 1 piece per teacher)
  • spoon (metal, 1 per group)
  • spoon (plastic, 1 per group)
  • spoon or craft stick (wooden, 1 per group)
  • sugar (15 g, per station or set-up)
  • tape (1 roll per group)
  • tape (clear, per teacher)
  • thermometer (1 per group)
  • thermometer (Celsius, for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • timing device (1 per station)
  • vegetable oil (per class)
  • water (per class)

 

Resources

None Identified

Advance Preparation

  1. Prepare “Mystery Bags” by placing a variety of 8–10 magnetic and non-magnetic objects, such as paper clips, aluminum foil, staples, chalk, crayons, markers, pens, highlighters, scissors, thumb tacks, fishing weights, copper wire, nickels, pennies, pencils, lead, steel nails, wood, pieces of soap, cork, brass brads, or steel brads,  in a brown, paper lunch bag (1 per group).
  2. Prepare the phase models. Three Petri dishes will be required to create the physical models of the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter. After filling the Petri dishes with the BBs, hot glue the lids to the base to prevent spillage. (1 set per teacher)
  • Solid- Fill one Petri dish with BBs, packed closely together to impair movement.
  • Liquid- In the second Petri dish, place about half the number of BBs that were used in the first Petri dish.
  • Gas- Place about a dozen BBs in the third Petri dish.
  1. For the Properties of Matter- States of Matter you will need to have 30 hole punch dots for every student.
  2. For the Explore/Explain – Properties of Matter – Relative Density/Mass, you will need to gather objects for measuring mass. You will need to collect enough for each group to have one set. Examples of these objects include the following:  paper clips, pencils, pens, crayons, markers, pennies, washers, pebbles, blocks of wood, and plastic items.
  3. For the Explore/Explain – Properties of Matter – Solubility in Water, you will need Teacher Resource: Dissolving Station Cards. Please note there are instructions for two different stations on each card. Page one has instructions for Station 1 and Station 2, and page 2 has instructions for Stations 3 and 4. The teacher resource should be copied on cardstock or other sturdy paper and cut apart. The station cards will be placed at the appropriate station for the investigation.
  4. Gather the objects that will be used in the Explore/Explain: Properties of Matter – Electrical Conductors and Insulators. The insulated wire may need to have ½–1 inch of the insulation stripped from each end. The light bulbs needed for this phase are miniature and should be 3.8-V or Christmas lights cut apart with leads.
  5. Prepare attachment(s) as necessary.

Background Information

This lesson bundles SEs that address physical properties of matter in order to set a foundation for understanding and classifying chemical and physical changes.

 

 

During this unit, students will classify matter according to their physical properties. Additionally, students will focus on the physical properties of mixtures and solutions. Throughout the year, many process skills will be embedded to support scientific methods and measurement.

 

 

STAAR Note:

Students’ Grade 5 understanding of physical properties of matter will be foundational to the concept of elements and their location on the periodic table in middle school curriculum. Readiness Standard 5.5A will be tested on STAAR Grade 5 under Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy. Supporting Standard 5.5B will be tested on STAAR Grade 5 under Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy.


GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION

Teachers are encouraged to supplement and substitute resources, materials, and activities to meet the needs of learners. These lessons are one approach to teaching the TEKS/Specificity as well as addressing the Performance Indicators associated with each unit. District personnel may create original lessons using the Content Creator in the Tools Tab. All originally authored lessons can be saved in the “My CSCOPE” Tab within the “My Content” area.


INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

Instructional Procedures
ENGAGE – Physical Properties…Does it Matter
Notes for Teacher
NOTE: 
1 Day = 30 minutes
Suggested Day 1
  1. Show the Teacher Resource: PowerPoint: Physical Properties.
  2. Instruct students to list the properties in their notebook and place a √ by any properties they have studied and understand.
  3. You may wish to consider also having students write a brief explanation of their own understanding of the term ‘physical properties’ based upon their past experience; this may provide an opportunity for insight on their knowledge on a deeper level.
Attachments:

  • Teacher Resource: PowerPoint:  Physical Properties

 

Science Notebooks:

Instruct students to list the properties listed in the Power Point that they will learn about.

EXPLORE/EXPLAIN – Properties of Matter – MagnetismSuggested Days 1 (continued) and 2
  1. The teacher will conduct a demonstration to introduce the concept of magnetism.
  2. Tie a paper clip to one end of a 70 cm long kite string or sewing thread. Tape the other end of the string on a stable surface, such as a desk. Allow the paper clip to rest on top of the table.
  1. Pick up the paper clip, and lay it on your palm, extending your palm the length of the string.
  1. Place the magnet about 1 cm away from the paper clip. As soon as the magnetic attraction is felt, release the paper clip from the palm of your hand.
  1. As the paper clip begins to float, move the magnet up, down, and side to side so that the paper clip follows it.
  1. Instruct students to carefully place a piece of paper in between the paper clip and the magnet so they can see if the paper clip is still floating in the air.
    Ask:
  • Can you think of another object that might exhibit the same properties as the paper clip and magnet? Answers may vary, but students should suggest metals.
  • What are the characteristics of magnetism? Answers may vary, but could include: a magnetic force surrounds the magnet. Magnets have two poles, North-seeking and South-seeking. There is a force of attraction between unlike poles or repulsion between like poles.
  • How do you know when an object interacts with a magnet?The object will be attracted (pulled) toward the magnet.
  1. Instruct students to draw the floating magnet set-up and record observations and reflections in their notebook. Instruct students to record and answer the question: What does the property of magnetism show about matter?
  2. Divide the class into groups of 4 or 5 students. Give each group a Mystery Bag.
  3. Instruct students to create a data table in their notebook, or distribute the Optional Handout: Magnetic Attraction.
  4. Provide students the directions for the Mystery Bag activity:
  • Remove and list items in the Mystery Bag.
  • Predict whether the item is attracted or not attracted to a magnet.
  • Test each item with a magnet.
  • Place an X or a √ in the proper column, and answer the questions at the bottom of the page.

Materials:

  • paper clip (1 per teacher)
  • sewing thread or kite string (70 cm, 1 piece per teacher)
  • tape (clear, per teacher)
  • ruler (centimeter, 1 per teacher)
  • magnet (1 per group)
  • Mystery Bags (see Advance Preparation, 1 per group)
  • bags (brown paper, lunch-size, 1 per group)
  • objects (magnetic and non-magnetic items, 8–10 per group)

Attachments:

  • Optional Handout: Magnetic Attraction (1 per student)
  • Optional Teacher Resource: Magnetic AttractionKEY

 

Science Notebooks:

Instruct students to draw the floating magnet set-up and record observations and reflections in their notebook.

 

 

Instruct students to record and answer the question: What does the property of magnetism show about matter?

EXPLAIN – MagnetismSuggested Day 2 (continued)
  1. Facilitate a discussion with the students focused on the concept “properties of matter”. Use the following questions to guide the discussion.
  • What is a property? A property describes how an object looks, feels, or behaves.  A property is any characteristic which can be used to describe or identify a substance.
  • How do properties help us identify substances? Properties are unique to matter.
  • What can you learn about objects by classifying them? You can learn the identity of objects, common characteristics of similar objects, etc..
  • What does the property of magnetism show about matter? It shows whether or not the matter is composed of or contains iron-based metal, such as iron, nickel, or cobalt.
  1. Guide class through a whole group discussion as students share data from their Handout: Magnetic Attraction or from their notebooks.
  • What type of material seemed to be attracted to a magnet? Items with iron or steel seem to be attracted to a magnet.
  • Were all the metals attracted to magnets? No
  • Why do you think only some metals were attracted to a magnet? Allow students to explain their findings from the activity.
  1. Explain that each magnet has a North-seeking and a South-seeking pole. Show students a magnet with a labeled north and south pole.
  2. Continue the discussion:
  • What else has a north and south pole? Students should respond that the Earth has a north and south pole. Guide students in their thinking to help them draw the conclusion that the Earth is also a magnet.
  • Opposite poles of magnets (north and south) are attracted to each other. The opposite occurs, repelling, when the same poles (north and north or south and south) come near each other.
  1. Partner students with their nearest neighbors, distribute magnets (2 per group), and direct them to model the magnets attracting and repelling. Students should be able to answer the following question:
  • How did the magnets react when opposite poles and like poles were placed near each other? Students should respond that they felt the magnets pulling towards each other when opposite poles attracted and the magnets pushed away from each other when like poles repelled.
  1. Explain the pulling force that was felt during the activity with the two magnets:
  • The pulling you felt when opposite poles were near each other is called “attract”, and the pushing you felt when like poles were near each other is called “repel”. Direct students to accurately draw and label magnets attracting and repelling on the Handout “Attract and Repel” or use the Handout as a guide for what to draw in their science notebooks.
  1. Use a projector to show the class the following activity.
  • Place a magnet (use both a bar and a horseshoe magnet) underneath a sheet of white paper. Gently sprinkle iron filings on top of the magnets. The iron filings will show the lines of force for each of the magnets’ magnetic field.
  • Where do the lines of force appear to be the strongest? Students should respond that the lines of force are more concentrated around the poles of the magnets.
  1. Provide an explanation to reinforce the concept of magnetism:
  • As we discussed earlier, the Earth also has a North and South Pole. If we were able to sprinkle iron filings on the Earth, we would see the same lines of force that you saw with the smaller magnets. 
  1. Allow time for the students to accurately draw and label the lines of force they saw with the iron filings on the Handout: Attract and Repel, or use the Handout as a guide for what to draw in their science notebooks.
  2. Facilitate a discussion on the ways that attraction and repulsion are seen and used as a part of their lives. Assist the discussion as necessary to ensure that the following points are brought up:
  • The Earth’s magnetic field protects the Earth from dangerous radiation from the Sun.
  • A compass points north because the iron needle is attracted to the magnetic north pole.
  • Magnets are useful in sorting and separating some materials.
  • Some high speed trains work because of magnetic repulsion.

Materials:

  • magnets (bar, 2 per group)
  • magnet (bar and horseshoe, for demonstration, 1 of each per teacher)
  • paper (plain, 1 sheet per group)
  • iron filings (per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Optional Handout: Attract and Repel

 

Instructional Notes:
This discussion is an important foundational piece for the understanding of physical properties and how they help us classify matter.

 

Students may know that some of the common objects are metals, but they may not know the specific metal(s) that compose each sample. Students do not have to know this material:

  • Current pennies are zinc coins coated in copper.
  • U.S. nickels are 25% nickel and 75% copper.
  • Nails, staples, and thumbtacks are typically composed of steel.
  • Paper clips are generally made from galvanized steel. Steel is an alloy whose main ingredient is iron.  Students may not be familiar with the term alloy. An alloy is a mixture of metals.
  • Fishing weights may be composed of coated lead or a zinc alloy although brass, tungsten, and steel are replacing these in many areas.
  • Copper wire and aluminum foil both are named from the elements from which they are made.
EXPLORE/EXPLAIN – Properties of Matter – States of MatterSuggested Days 3 and 4
  1. Open the lesson with some guiding questions:
  • What is matter? Accept and clarify responses reinforcing the idea that matter is everything that has mass and takes up space.
  • What are the three common states of matter? (Solid, liquid, and gas)
  • Can mass be measured in all three states of matter? (Yes)
  • What are some examples of a liquid, a solid and a gas? Answers will vary.
  1. Instroduce the teacher demonstration:
  • Our demonstration today will represent a model of how molecules are arranged in the three common states of matter.
  1. Turn on the overhead projector and place the Petri dish representing the solid on the glass top. Instruct students to make careful observation:
  • What does this arrangement of BBs represent? The students should explain that the packed BBs in the Petri dish are a model that shows how molecules are arranged very closely together in a solid.
  1. Slowly move the dish back and forth.
  • What is happening to the BBs?  Why? The students should conclude that the molecules in solids still move, but only slightly.  The molecular movement is more of a vibration rather than a change of position.  This allows the solid to keep its shape.
  • How would you describe a solid? A solid has a certain size (volume) and shape.
  1. Place the second Petri dish on the overhead projector (the model of a liquid).
  • What does this arrangement of BBs represent? The students should explain that since the BBs in the Petri dish have more space between them, the model demonstrates how molecules in a liquid state may be arranged. The further apart the molecules are, the easier they can move.
  1. Move the Petri dish back and forth a little faster than the first dish was moved.
  • What is happening to the BBs? Why? The students should conclude that the molecules in liquids are able to move around quite a bit more than the molecules in a solid can. The space between the molecules allows liquids to change shape as they move more freely.
  •  How would you describe a liquid?  It has volume but doesn’t have a definite shape. This allows liquids to take the shape of any container in which it is placed.
  1. Place the third Petri dish on the overhead projector (the model of a gas).
  • What does this arrangement of BBs represent? The students should explain that since the BBs in the Petri dish have even more space between them than the second model, it demonstrates how molecules in a gaseous state may be arranged.
  1. Move this container more quickly than the previous two containers.
  • What is happening to the BBs? Why? The students should conclude that molecules in gases are able to move around quite a bit.
  • How would you describe a gas? It has volume but doesn’t have a definite shape. This allows gases to take the shape of any container in which they are placed. The large amount of space between molecules allows gases to spread until they are stopped by the sides of a container.
  1. Instroduce the kinestic model for states of matter:
  • We are going to work as a group and study why matter in a specific state behaves in a particular way. 
  1. Divide the class into two or three groups.
  2. Provide the following instructions:
  • Stand as close as you can in your group.
  • Without moving your feet, slightly sway your body side to side.
  1. Continue with the following instructions:
  • Take one step away from each other.  
  • Move around the room as a group, but always stay about one to two steps from each other. 
  1. Allow students to walk around close to their groups for about 5–10 seconds. Continue with the instructions for the activity:
  • Spread around the room.  Walk fast, or jump up and down. Be sure to stay away from each other as you move. 
  1. Allow the groups to do this for about 5–10 seconds then return to their seats.
  2. Instruct students to write a three sentence summary of what they think the activity demonstrated.
  3. Distribute the Handout: Hole Punch Fold Model (or use the Handout as a guide to make the fold activity) and 30 paper circles (paper hole-punches). Explain to the students that in this model they will be using the paper hole-punches to represent matter. Each section will illustrate how the particles of matter look and change with the addition and removal of thermal energy.
  4. Guide students in reflecting on the two states-of-matter models they have experiences in this lesson:
  • What does solid water look like in a container? Students’ responses should explain that it is a solid piece of ice.
  • Did your particles or “pieces” of the solid vibrate? (Demonstrate the BB model again if necessary.) Students should respond that the molecules did not move around, but they do vibrate even if we cannot see it.
  • How could we show vibration on the molecules of our Hole Punch Model? Students should draw some movement marks on each of the hole-punched paper circles. Model what this should look like.
  1. Instruct students to glue 10 of their hole-punch circles in the container labeled “solid” on their fold models. This model should look like an ice cube at the bottom of the container or a solid block at the bottom of the container. While monitoring students, make sure the molecules in their “solid” show some vibration marks. Also, instruct students to draw a glass with solid water (ice cube) in it on the front of the top flap.
  2. Guide a discussion about the states of matter and changes in state using the following guiding questions:
  • What kind of energy must be added in order for the solid to become a liquid? (Thermal energy must be added.) Heat energy is added or subtracted.
  • What kind of energy must be removed in order for the liquid to become a solid? (Thermal energy must be removed.) Heat energy
  • What does liquid water look like in a container? Students’ responses should state that water rests at the bottom of a container.  Water takes the shape of its container.
  • How do the molecules move in a liquid? (Demonstrate the BB model again if necessary.) Students should respond that molecules move and slide past each other and the liquid rests at the bottom of the container.  Water (liquids) takes the shape of its container.
  • How could we show water “moving” in our Hole Punch Model?  Students should respond that adding arrows to the “molecules” would show movement.
  • In which direction should you draw the arrows? Student responses should include that the arrows might also point upward because as the water evaporates, the water vapor moves up and out of the container.
  1. Instruct students to glue 10 of their hole-punched paper circles along the bottom of their “liquid” container on their foldables. Remind students to place vibration marks on their molecules as well as arrows to show how the liquid moves. Also, instruct students to draw a glass with liquid water in it on the front of the top flap on their fold models.
  2. Continue the discussion about the states of matter and the changes in state using the guiding questions:
  • What kind of energy must be added in order for the liquid to become a gas?  (Thermal energy must be added.)
  • What kind of energy must be removed in order for the gas to become a liquid? (Thermal energy must be removed.)
  • What does gas (water vapor) look like in a container? Students should respond that they cannot see water vapor.
  • How do the molecules of a gas move? (Demonstrate the BB model again if necessary.) Student responses should state that molecules move very quickly and are spread apart from each other.
  • How could we use the hole punches to represent a gas (water vapor) on our fold models?  Students should respond that the hole punches should be spread apart throughout and that some of the molecules might be outside the container.
  • What should we draw on our molecules to accurately show the movement of a gas?  Student responses should include that each molecule should have a longer arrow than the water molecules did, and that some arrows should point in a variety of directions. They should also respond that the molecules still need vibration marks on them.
  1. Instruct students to take their remaining 10 hole-punch paper circles and glue them in the container labeled “gas” on their fold models. Remind students to draw vibration marks on each molecule and to draw longer arrows pointing away from each molecule to show movement. Also, instruct students to draw a glass with water vapor in it on the front of the top flap on their foldables.
  2. Guide students in a discussion about why the number of molecules remained the same in each of the containers. Reiterate that the number of molecules does not determine the state of matter; instead, it is the way the molecules move and the amount of energy that determines their physical state.
  3. Instruct students to glue their completed models into their science notebooks for future reference.
  4. Instruct students to draw a diagram of the three models they have learned about in their notebooks and label the state of matter each drawing represents. Remind students of the BB models, kinesthetic model (student modeling the movement of the states of matter), and hole-punch models. They should also record the properties of each state in their notebooks.
  5. Complete the following teacher demonstration with student assistance:
  • Place some ice in a heat-proof beaker.
  • Ask a student to assist you by taking the temperature of the ice (in °C) and recording it on the board.
  • The temperature will be close to 0°C. Explain that the ice is not at 0°C because it is no longer in the freezer and has already begun to melt.
  • Turn on the hot plate, set it on the high temperature setting, and place the beaker of water on the coil. Model the use of safety goggles and gloves.
  • When the ice melts into a liquid, ask a student to assist you in taking the temperature of the water in °C and recording it on the board.
  • When the water begins to boil, reinsert the thermometer into the beaker. Ask a student to assist you in reading the temperature (make sure the student keeps a safe distance from the hot plate and boiling water). Record the temperature of the boiling water on the board.
  • Direct students to observe the steam rising from the beaker. Hold a mirror over the steam for a couple of seconds, and then show the condensation on the mirror to the students.
  1. After the teacher demonstration has concluded, students answer the following questions:
  • What state was the water in at beginning of our activity? (It was solid.)
  • What happened to the water when the temperature reached 100°C? (It turned to vapor/gas.)
  • Which part of the steam column was the vapor/gas? The clear part on the bottom was the vapor/gas. The white part is cooler than the clear part and has already begun to condense back into liquid form.
  • Why did the water reform into a liquid on the mirror? The temperature of the mirror surface and the air above the beaker is cooler than that inside the beaker. As the temperature cools, the gas/vapor turns into a liquid again.
  • If I was to put a thermometer in a bag of ice in a freezer, what do you think the temperature might be? (The freezing point of water is 0°C.)
  • If the boiling point of water is 100°C and the freezing point of water is 0°C, what is the melting point of water? The melting point is the temperature at which the substance will go from the solid phase to the liquid phase and the freezing point is the temperature at which the substance will go from the liquid phase to the solid phase. Water freezes at 0°C to produce ice, and ice melts at 0°C to produce water.  For water, the melting point and freezing point are the same temperature…0°C.
  • Can temperature affect the physical state of solids or gases? Any solid can turn into a liquid if the temperature reaches the melting point of that solid.  A gas can be forced into a liquid state if the temperature becomes cold enough.
  1. Conclude the lesson with the following information/question:
  • Physical state is one property of matter. 
  • What does the physical state tell you about matter? The physical state of matter tells you whether or not the matter is a liquid, solid, or gas.

Materials:

  • phase models (see Advance Preparation, 1 set per teacher)
  • Petri dishes (3 per teacher)
  • BB’s (per teacher)
  • projector (overhead, 1 per teacher)
  • beaker (Pyrex®, 250 mL, for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • water
  • hot plate (for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • goggles (for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • gloves or hot mitt (for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • thermometer (Celsius, for demonstration, 1 per teacher)
  • hole-punch circles (paper, 30 per student)
  • glue (white liquid, 1 bottle per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Handout: Hole Punch Fold Model (1 per student)

 

Safety Notes:

Remind students about behavior expectations that respect the safety rules. Model the use of safety goggles and gloves.

 

 

Instructional Notes:
States of matter were introduced in Grade 3. Although this is not a Supporting Standard, it is the first time the states of matter are used to describe matter. This physical property will be used to classify in the Readiness Standard 5.5A.

 

 

Example of a completed Hole Punch Fold Model:

 

Image courtesy A. Venegas

 

Misconception:

  • Students may think that gases are not matter because most are invisible.

 

Science Notebooks:

Instruct students to record and answer the following: Physical state is a property of matter. What does the physical state tell you about matter?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kinesthetic learning occurs as students
engage in a physical activity:
learning by doing, exploring, discovering.

The model of molecules using circles and
arrows is more correctly called a vector model
or vector diagram.

 

 

 

Using a thermochromic liquid crystal thermometer,
students could measure the surface temperature
of the ice cubes. Since freezer must be below
freezing temp of water, the ice is colder than
zero degrees Celsius.

 

There are safer investigations.

EXPORE/EXPLAIN – Properties of Matter- Relative Density/MassSuggested Days 4 and 5
  1. Introduce the lesson on relative density:
  • Today, we will be using canned sodas to compare their relative densities to that of water.
  1. Explain to students that:
  • Density is a very specific property of matter that can be calculated. (Students will learn to measure and calculate density in middle school.)
  • The density of an object will remain the same, regardless of the amount of the object present.
  • Density can be used to help identify an unknown substance.
  • If a substance is denser than water, its relative density will be greater than one and the substance will sink if placed in water.
  • If it is less dense than water, it will have a relative density less than one and the substance will float if placed in water.
    While this is true if water is the standard the substance is being compared to. Generally specific gravity is used to express the ratio of a substance’s density to the density of water. Relative Density aligned to the TEKS has to do with sinking or floating and should be a comparison of the
    density of any two substances and whether one sinks or floats in the other. Oil and water.
  1. Gather the necessary canned drinks to test, and fill the transparent container two-thirds of the way with water.
  2. Direct students to draw the container of water in their science notebooks, and label it “Density Predictions”. This is where they will record their predictions, by writing the soda name at the top if it will float and at the bottom if it will sink.
  3. Hold up the sodas one at a time. Instruct the students to write their predictions about whether the soda will sink or float on their illustration of the transparent container.

  1. Direct students to draw a second container of water in their science notebooks, and label it “Density Results.” This is where they will record the actual results; recording the soda name at the top if it floated and at the bottom if it sank.
  2. Compare the relative density of each soda to water by placing it into the container of water. As each can is tested, instruct students to record the results in their notebooks. Note: Most of the diet sodas will float, and most of the regular sodas will sink.
  3. Divide the class into groups of four students. Distribute a triple beam balance and a regular and diet soda to each group.
  4. Instruct the students to record the mass of each soda beside its name.
  5. Students will rotate to each group of sodas until they have found and recorded the mass of each soda can.
  6. Facilitate a discussion with the students exploring the reasons that the sodas sank or floated in water. Use the nutritional information listed on the cans and their masses to compare the contents of each soda. (This works best when comparing a soda that floated to a soda that sank. There will be a difference in the amount and type of sugars or sweeteners in the drinks. Students should be able to conclude that the mass of the sugar in a regular soda is greater than the mass of the artificial sweetener in a diet soda. This difference in quantity of sugar increased the regular soda’s mass and therefore, changed its relative density to water.)The correct answer is that the density of the diet soda is less than that of the regular soda. This can be because the volume of the two sodas is the same and the mass of the diet soda is less. Since density is not to be calculated until a later grade, measure the mass makes the info confusing.

Materials:

  • can of diet soda (3 or more different kinds, per class)
  • can of regular soda (3 or more different kinds, per class)
  • container with water (transparent, such as an aquarium, 1 per class)
  • balance (triple beam, 1 per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Teacher Resource: Triple Beam Balance (1 copy to project)
  • Teacher Resource: Pan Balance (1 copy to project)

 

Instructional Notes:
Objects used in previous activities may be used in this section.

 

 

Triple beam balances were introduced in Grade 4. Relative mass was covered in K–2 and mass in Grades 3–4. This section should be a review of both the triple beam balance and mass.  A pan balance may be used instead of a triple beam balance. If necessary, review how to use the pan balance. A combination of pan and triple beam balances may be used.

 

Science Notebooks:

Create a data table to estimate and record the actual mass of a variety of items.

EXPLORE/EXPLAIN – Properties of Matter – Solubility in WaterSuggested Day 6
  1. Set up four stations around the room. Divide the class into groups of four students. Instruct students to follow all safety rules at the stations, including wearing safety goggles during the entire activity. Explain to students that they will be rotating through the stations and will be given a specific amount of time at each station. Time the rotations between stations. Note: The time spent at each station is determined by the individual teacher based on their class needs.
  2. Instructions for students:
  • Draw pictures in the science notebook of the mixtures before and after stirring.
  • Return to your seats when all groups have rotated through the stations.
  1. Teacher Demonstration-
  • Put on safety goggles.
  • Show students a bottle of clear soda. (Note: Seltzer water, club soda, or sparkling water may also be used.)  Be sure the label is off the bottle so the contents are visible. Instruct students to draw the unopened bottle.
  • Slowly loosen the cap of the bottle. Direct student attention to the bubbles rising to the surface. Instruct students to draw the open bottle and bubbles.
  1. Instruct students to write, in their science notebooks, the answer to the following two questions:
  • How would you define ‘dissolve’?
  • What evidence can you share from the lab activity that shows how different substances dissolve?

Demonstration doesn’t demonstrate either to students who have yet to be introduced to solutions and dissolving.

  1. Allow time for students to complete their responses before discussing the Dissolving Stations investigation. The Teacher Resource: Dissolving Stations KEY is provided to assist with the discussion.

Materials:

  • beaker (150 mL, 1 per station)
  • balance (triple beam, 2 per class)
  • graduated cylinder (1 per class)
  • timing device (1 per station)
  • clear soda (1 per class)
  • safety goggles (1 pair per student, 1 pair per teacher)
  • water (100 mL, per group, per station)
  • sand (15 g, per group)
  • sugar (15 g, per station or set-up)
  • salt (15 g, per group)
  • vegetable oil (25 mL per group)
  • food coloring (5 drops, per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Teacher Resource: Dissolving Stations Cards(2 stations per card, see Advance Preparation)
  • Teacher Resource: Dissolving Stations KEY

 

Science Notebooks:

Students draw “before/after” pictures from the Dissolving Stations investigations.

 

 

Students respond to the two questions, “How would you define ‘dissolve’?” and “What evidence can you share from the lab activity that shows how different substances dissolve?”

EXPLORE/EXPLAIN  Properties of Matter- Electrical Conductors and InsulatorsSuggested Day 7
  1. Place students in groups of four, and distribute one wire, one battery, and one light bulb to each group.
  2. Using the items distributed, challenge students to light the bulb. Once each group is successful in illuminating their bulb, facilitate a discussion on the following:
  • What you have made is called a complete circuit. Instruct the students to draw and label the parts of their simple, yet complete, circuit onto the Handout:Conductivity Tester, or use the handout as a guide for what should be recorded into their science notebooks.
  • How did you make the bulb light up? Students should share that the wire had to touch both the negative and positive ends of the battery, and the bottom of the light bulb also had to touch the bare wire and battery terminal at the same time.
  • What role did the battery play in your circuit? Students should respond that the battery is the source of electric energy for the circuit.
  • What role did the wire play in your circuit? Guide responses to ensure that they deduce that the wire is an electrical conductor, which means that it is a material that allows electrical energy to pass through it.
  1. Distribute two more insulated wires and a switch (to model an open and closed circuit) to each group. Challenge them to once again use all the available materials to light the bulb.  Allow time for student exploration.  Once each group is successful, instruct students to illustrate and label their new complete circuit on the handout or in their science notebooks.
  2. Instruct students to discuss the following question with a partner:
  • How were you able to make a circuit complete with the use of a switch?Students should be able to respond that when the switch was closed, it allowed the electricity to flow through the circuit. This information should be added to the illustration of the circuit that was drawn earlier.
  1. The previous activity should serve as a springboard to discuss the differences between an open and closed circuit. Use the discussion to guide students to defineClosed Circuit and Open Circuit on the Handout: Conductivity Tester or to define the terms in their science notebooks.
  2. Explain to students that they will be using their complete circuit to test the electrical conductivity of a variety of materials.
  • First, they will place the item in their circuit and touch the wires to the item to test its conductivity.
  • If the bulb lights up, the item is a conductor. If the bulb doesn’t light up, the object is an insulator.
  • Students will draw and label the items as electrical conductors or electrical insulators in the T-chart, on the handout, or in their science notebooks.
  1. Facilitate a discussion, and allow students to share their findings about the items tested and their electrical conductive or insulating properties. Their findings should include that wood, glass, air, wax, cloth, and rubber are insulators and that all metals tested were conductors. Be sure to tell students that their bodies contain water, and that since water is an electrical conductor, that is why they are able to get an electrical shock.
  2. Discuss and define the terms on their handout or in their science notebooks:
  • Electrical Conductors: Conductors are materials that electricity easily passes through. They do not resist the flow of electricity.
  • Electrical Insulators: Insulators are materials that resist the flow of electricity. Electricity does not pass easily through them.
  1. Continue the discussion using the following questions as a guide:
  • What patterns did you observe in testing the electrical conductivity of the materials? Students should respond that all of the metal items they tested were conductors.
  • Where do you see examples of electrical conductive and insulating materials? Instruct students to reflect on at least five places they have seen conductive and insulating materials and how this is related to their daily activities. After students have had adequate time to think, instruct them to share their findings with another student.  Repeat the sharing activity until the students have had the opportunity to verbalize and hear a variety of responses.

Materials:

  • battery (D cell, 1 per group)
  • paper clips (2 per group)
  • light bulbs (miniature, see Advance Preparation, 1 per group)
  • insulated wire (15–25 cm, 3 pieces per group)
  • circuit breaker switch (1 per group)
  • electrical tape or battery holder (per group)
  • objects (variety of metal and nonmetal, see Advance Preparation, 1 set per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Handout: Conductivity Tester (1 per student)

 

Instructional Notes:
Instruct students to build a conductivity tester. Objects that have been used in other sections of this lesson may be used in this activity. Be sure to have both conductors and insulators to test.

 

 

EXPLORE/EXPLAIN – Properties of Matter- Thermal Energy Conductors and InsulatorsSuggested Days 8 and 9
  1. Place students back in working groups. Distribute one thermometer, jar with a lid, pair of scissors, roll of tape, and type of thermal insulating material to each group. Explain to the groups that they each received a different material because they will be comparing their findings with each other in order to determine which material was the best at insulating thermal energy. Use a jar with no insulating material as a control.
  1. Use the following question, or one of your own, to determine student understanding of “variables”:
  • What is the variable you will be testing in this experiment? Students should respond that the different thermal insulating material is the tested variable in the activity. Remind students that only one variable can be changed in an experiment at a time and that repeated trials yield more accurate results.
  1. Direct each group to trim and tape the insulating material, as needed, in order to wrap their jar. Record their material on the handout.
  2. Safety Note: Address safety and the use of hot mitts around hot objects. Hot water should be monitored for safety. The water should not be over 55 degrees Celsius. Help the groups when handling the jars of hot water.
  3. After each group has wrapped the jar, the teacher will pour hot water into each of the jars. Instruct students to place a thermometer into the jar and record the initial temperature in °Celsius in the appropriate table on the handout.

There are safer activities and the initial temperature is taken before the water is poured into the container.

  1. Remind students of safety guidelines. Tell them to use the hot mitts to screw on the lid tightly and move the jars aside, so that the jars will be undisturbed for the next 30 minutes.
  2. Display or project the Handout Heat Wrappers, and invite one member of each group to share/write their temperature data. Instruct students to complete the “Initial Temperature” column on their handouts.
  3. Continue with the activity Spoon Dilemma. Distribute one bowl, plastic spoon, wooden spoon or craft stick, and metal spoon to each group. (Groups should already have a thermometer at their table.)
  4. Instruct students to feel each spoon (plastic, wood, and metal) and rank them from the coolest to the hottest, according to how they feel and record in Handout: Spoon Dilemma/Heat Wrappers. This is the first ranking of the spoons.
  5. Pour hot water into the bowl for each group.
  6. Instruct students to set the timing device for three minutes and then put all three spoons and the thermometer into the water.
  7. While the students wait for the three minutes to pass, instruct them to take the temperature reading of the water in °Celsius and record it on their handouts.
  8. After the three minutes have passed, instruct students to touch each spoon handle and rank the spoons according to how they feel from coolest to hottest on the Handout: Spoon Dilemma/Heat Wrappers. This is the second ranking of the spoons.
    Ask:
  • Is the ranking the same as it was before? No
  1. Elaborate on the words conductor and insulator, and explain that thermal conductors allow the heat to flow much faster and easier than thermal insulators.
  2. Return to the activity Spoon Dilemma/Heat Wrappers. Instruct students to unwrap the jars and measure the temperature of the water again, recording the results on the handout.
  3. Once again, project the Handout Heat Wrappers, and invite one member of each group to share/write their temperature data. Instruct students to complete the “Final Temperature” column on their handouts.
  4. Facilitate a discussion to review thermal conductors and insulators:
  • Thermal conductors allow heat energy to go through materials.
  • Thermal insulators stop heat energy from going through materials quickly.
  • Which wrappers were best at keeping the heat from leaving the jars?Allow students the opportunity to respond. Students should reflect on the activity and apply it to what they see in everyday life.
  • Which wrappers allowed the most heat to escape from the jars? Allow students the opportunity to respond. Students should reflect on the activity and apply it to what they see in everyday life.
  • Why do you think some materials held heat and others did not? Allow students the opportunity to respond. Students should reflect on the activity in the context of how some matter is made of materials that affect the flow of thermal energy. For example, the behavior of conductors and insulators could be applied to real life experiences.
  1. Provide time for students to brainstorm situations in their everyday life where the tested items are used to conduct or insulate thermal energy. An example might be when hot beverages are served in Styrofoam™ cups. Thinking should be recorded in the student’s science notebook.
  2. Groups should have the opportunity to share their ideas.
  3. Continue the discussion:
  • Matter that does not allow thermal energy to escape quickly is called an insulator. Matter that allows thermal energy to escape is called a conductor.
  • What wrappers in this lab would be considered insulators? Allow students the opportunity to respond. Students should reflect on the activity and apply it to what they see in everyday life.
  • What wrappers in this lab would be considered conductors? Allow students the opportunity to respond. Students should reflect on the activity and apply it to what they see in everyday life.
  1. Guide students in defining the terms conductor and insulator on their handout.

Materials:

  • jar (heatproof, with lid, 1 per group)
  • cup (Styrofoam™, 1 per class)
  • bag (brown, 1 per class)
  • wrapping materials (to test insulation of thermal energy)
    • bubble wrap (1 per class)
    • cardstock (1 piece per class)
    • newspaper (1 sheet per class)
    • aluminum foil (approximately 12”x 6”, 1 per class)
  • tape (1 roll per group)
  • scissors (1 pair per group)
  • timing device (1 per group)
  • thermometer (1 per group)
  • container of hot water (per class)
  • bowl (1 per group)
  • spoon (plastic, 1 per group)
  • spoon or craft stick (wooden, 1 per group)
  • spoon (metal, 1 per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Handout: Spoon Dilemma/Heat Wrappers (1 per student)

 

Safety Notes:

The next two activities involve hot water. Address safety and the use of hot mitts around hot objects. Hot water should be monitored for safety. The water should not be over 55 degrees Celsius. Help the groups when handling the jars of hot water.

 

 

Instructional Notes:
Consider performing a web search for demonstrating heat conduction or conductivity. You may wish to include the key word search terms heat conduction; University of Virginia or about conductivity to find information on conductivity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.

ELABORATE – Properties of Matter MatrixSuggested Day 10
  1. Each group will investigate 3–5 items of their choosing, from around the classroom.
  2. The properties of each object are to be identified and recorded by the group members. Remind them that a property is any characteristic, which can be used to describe or identify an object. Hand lenses are useful for close visual identification.
  3. It is necessary to provide guidance on the type of tests allowed. Safety Note: No taste-testing should be allowed.
  4. Record findings on Handout: Properties of Matter Semantic Map.
  5. When small groups have completed their handouts, instruct students to hide the “Name of Substance” column by folding their paper along the line, separating the columns “Name of Substance” and “Magnetism”.  Explain to students that they will be trading handouts and items tested with another group.
  6. Students will use the physical properties listed on the Handout: Properties of Matter Semantic Map, which they received from another group, to match the properties with the correct items.

Materials:

  • balance (triple beam, 1 per group)
  • complete circuit (for testing,1 per group)
  • magnet (1 per group)
  • thermometer (1 per group)
  • hand lens (1 per group)
  • beaker (for testing relative density, 1 per group) – Optional
  • objects (found in the classroom, 3–5 per group)

 

Attachments:

  • Handout: Properties of Matter Semantic Map  (1 per student)

 

Safety Note:

Tests involving taste should not be permitted.

EVALUATE – Performance IndicatorSuggested Days 10 (continued) and 11

Grade 05 Science Unit 02 PI 01

You are taking a cooking class and are assigned the task of analyzing how the properties of the items found in a kitchen determine their use. Choose five items to evaluate. Consider the following properties in your evaluation: magnetism, physical state, relative density, solubility in water, ability to conduct or insulate thermal or electric energy, and the boiling and melting/freezing point of water. Create a display to communicate this information to other students.

Standard(s): 5.2F , 5.2G , 5.5A , 5.5B
ELPS ELPS.c.1E , ELPS.c.5G
  1. Refer to the Teacher Resource: Evaluate Instructions PI for information on administering the performance assessment.
Attachments:

  • Teacher Resource: Evaluate Instructions PI (1 for projection)
©2013 TESCCC
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